Paper on natural seabed gas leaks published in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America

Good news! Rokas published his study on seabed gas leaks in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America.

Rokas Kubulius and Geir Pedersen: Relative acoustic frequency response of induced methane, carbon dioxide and air gas bubble plumes, observed laterally
The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 140, 2902-2912 (2016)

 

Abstract:

There is an increased need to detect, identify, and monitor natural and manmade seabed gas leaks. Fisheries echosounders are well suited to monitor large volumes of water and acoustic frequency response [normalized acoustic backscatter, when a measure at one selected frequency is used as a denominator, ()] is commonly used to identify echoes from fish and zooplankton species. Information on gas plume () would be valuable for automatic detection of subsea leaks and for separating bubble plumes from natural targets such as swimbladder-bearing fish. Controlled leaks were produced with a specially designed instrument frame suspended in mid-water in a sheltered fjord. The frame was equipped with echosounders, stereo-camera, and gas-release nozzles. The () of laterally observedmethane, carbon dioxide, and air plumes (0.040–29 l/min) were measured at 70, 120, 200, and 333 kHz, with bubble sizes determined optically. The observed bubble size range (1–25 mm) was comparable to that reported in the literature for natural cold seeps of methane. A negative () with increasing frequency was observed, namely, () of about 0.7, 0.6, and 0.5 at 120, 200, and 333 kHz when normalized to 70 kHz.Measured plume () is also compared to resolved, single bubble target strength-based, and modeled ().